BIO 102 & 102T Biology and Society Lecture + Tutorial:
Biology and Society is an introductory course designed to familiarize students with the different divisions of life sciences. Life is all around us from invisible microbes and green plants to the other animals with whom we share the earth.
The course therefore, starts with the discussion on “Biodiversity”. Than it discusses about “Evolution” to give the students an idea about how the various kinds of creatures have been evolved in this ever changing world. Few lectures on “Human Physiology” gives them some idea about organ systems such as “Circulatory System”, “Digestive System”, “Excretory System”, “Reproductive System”, which are keeping us alive. Discussion on “Blood” allows them to know about the interesting and also very important topic blood grouping and blood transfusion. They also come to know about “Infectious Diseases” and microbes which are responsible for causing diseases. Thus some lights have been given to one major division of life science, “Microbiology”. Lectures on “Immunology” will later explain them, how do we fight those microbes to live a healthy life and how “Vaccine” can help us in this regard. Learning “Genetics” they will know, why they look like their parents, why siblings are not same and how the language of DNA is translated. The “Cell Biology” part will describe them how a full human body is grown from a single cell and how a human body is continuously growing. Under the topic of “Pharmacy” they will know about the interesting procedure of “Drug Discovery” and journey of drug inside the body (“Pharmacokinetics”). Finally, the course includes broad discussion about the most interesting division of Life Sciences, which is “Biotechnology”. The most recent applications or discoveries of biology, such as antibiotics, vaccine, in vitro fertilization, cloning, gene therapy, stem cell, recombinant DNA technology, genetically modified organism etc will be discussed, which will make them up to date about what new things are happening around the world.

BIO 105 General Chemistry I + Lab: 
A development of the fundamental principles of the chemistry and their applications, chemical nomenclature, bonding theories, thermochemistry, periodic properties, solution calculations, gas laws and the properties of solids and liquids are among the topics discussed. At the end of the course students will have idea about thermodynamics, where they will learn the first law of thermodynamics and all of the terminology associated with it, thermochemistry (Including the exothermic and endothermic reactions)
The lab will cover Preparation of standard acidic and basic solution, indicator solution, buffer solution of desired pH. Determination of partition coefficient of benzoic acid in water and carbon tetrachloride solution. Determination of molecular mass of an unknown compound by measuring the freezing-point depression. Identification of basic radical (Al3+, Mg2+, Ca2+). Determination of Ca2+ in supplied sample.Conversion of Citric acid to Sodium Citrate. Synthesis of sodium oxalate from oxalic acid. Determination of the velocity constant of a base catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate.Determination of viscosity of chemicals/solutions. Identification of unknown inorganic sample by semi micro qualitative analysis

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T

Recommended Books:
Pauling, L. 1988. General Chemistry (3rd Edition), Dover Publications
Ebbing, DD & Gammon, SD 2007, General Chemistry (9th Edition). Cengage Learning Publishers

MCB 101 General Microbiology I: 
The course introduces the nature and diversity of microorganisms and their implications for all of biology. The course covers comparative properties of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes, as well as their roles as disease agents, ecological agents and model systems used to understand the fundamental biological processes at the molecular level.

The course will cover the discovery of microorganisms, biogenesis versus abiogenesis, fermentation process, germ theory of disease, Koch’s postulate, development of lab techniques, vaccination, antisepsis, chemotherapy. Scopes of microbiology include human welfare, agriculture industry, health and sanitation, environment and pollution control. Bacterial size, shape and arrangements; characteristics of major groups of Grain-negative and Gram positive bacteria; general characteristics, morphological and physiological diversity of Achaea; discovery of virus, their general characteristics; morphology; chemical composition, classification and nomenclature of bacteriophage; bacteriophage life cycle – lytic and lysogenic life cycles, replication and one-step multiplication curve, viroids, prions; General morphological characteristics of fungi, their growth and reproduction, classification, importance in industry and natural process; general characteristics of algae; classification microscopic algae and their importance; general characteristics of protozoa, their classification, major groups, importance in natural process.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T

Recommended Books:
Willey, J, Sherwood, L & Woolverton, C. 2010. Prescott’s Microbiology. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Publishers
Pommerville, JC. 2010. Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology (9th Edition). Jones and Bartlett Publications
Microbiology- An Introduction, 5th edition, by Gerard J. Tortora, Berdell R. Funke, Christine L. Case;
Biology of Microorganisms by T.D. Brock et al.;
Microbiology by M. J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan & N. R. Krieg;

MCB 102 Microbial Chemistry:
A study of the metabolism of the microorganisms, using a biochemical approach. Structure and function of microbial cells and their components such as protein, nucleic acids, fatty acids, etc.

This course includes – Biomolecules and Biopolymers: properties and functions of the major and minor essential elements; water, carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. Molecular Architecture of Microbial Cells: chemical composition and function of cellular structures and organelles: capsules, flagella, pili, cell walls, cytoplasmic membranes, pigments, ribosomes, mitochondria, cytoplasmic inclusions and endospores. Antimicrobial Agents: type, chemistry, mode of action and efficiency; antimicrobial resistance; study of penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nystatin, gentamicin and griseofulvin; effectiveness of antimicrobial agents; assay of antibiotics by chemical methods.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T

Recommended Books:
Slonczewski, JL & Foster, JW. 2008. Microbiology: An Evolving Science (1st Edition). W.W. Norton & Company
Madigan, MT, Martinko, JM & Parker, J. 2000. Brock Biology of Microorganisms (9th Edition). Prentice Hall Publishers
Principles of Biochemistry- Lehninger Nelson and Cox 5th Edition

MCB 103 Basic Techniques in Microbiology + Lab:
Methodology of microbiology: isolation, handling and preservation of microorganisms, microscopy, staining, aseptic technique, culture media, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis, quantification, and laboratory safety will be discussed and also practiced in the laboratory.

The course will cover all fields of microscopes and microscopy; light spectrum, resolving power and magnification power; microscopes: light and electron microscopes. Microscopy: bright-field, dark-field, fluorescence, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, transmission electron, scanning, scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy; observation of microorganisms under microscope: wet-mount and hanging-drop technique; preparation of microorganisms for staining; chemical properties of stains; mechanisms of staining; positive and negative staining; simple, differential and special staining techniques. cultivation of microorganisms: nutritional requirements – physical and gaseous requirements; media used for cultivation microorganisms: chemically defined media, complex media, anaerobic growth media, selective and differential media; enriched culture; anaerobic culture method; pure culture techniques, characterization of microorganisms: their morphological characteristics; nutritional and cultural characteristics, metabolic characteristics, antigenic characteristics, pathogenic characteristics, genetic characteristics. Culture Preservation: long-term and short-term techniques for preservation of microbial culture. Measurement of Growth: direct measurement of microbial growth, estimating bacterial number by indirect methods, control of microbial growth: principles of microbial control, the rate of microbial death; the action of microbial control agents; conditions influencing microbial control, physical and chemical methods of microbial control.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101 

Recommended Books:
Cappuccino, J, and Sherman, N. 2010. Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual (9th Edition). Benjamin Cummings Publishers
Brown, A. 2008. Benson’s Microbiological Applications: A Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology (11th Edition). McGraw-Hill Publishers

MCB 201 General Microbiology II: 
The course will cover the structure, nutrition and growth of microorganisms; characterization of representative microorganisms and viruses; metabolic properties and introduction to microbial genetics. Topics covered include Archaea, Algae, Atypical bacteria

The course will cover – Physical Requirement of Microbial Growth: temperature, pH, gaseous requirement, osmotic pressure and other condition. Nutritional requirement for Microbial Growth: Chemical elements as nutrient, organic growth factors, nutritional classification of microorganisms, nutrient uptake process. Culture Media: criteria for an ideal culture media, selective and differential media, an aerobic growth media, special purpose media for eukaryotic microorganism, tissue culture media. Growth of Bacteria: bacterial multiplication, generation time, mathematical expression of growth, phase of growth, synchronous growth, bath, fed-batch and continuous culture. Microbial Systematic: microbial evolution and physiology, microbial taxonomy and classification, taxonomic hierarchies, classical systems of microbial classification, phonetic and phylogenetic approaches to microbial classification, numerical taxonomy, molecular based classification, dendograms and similarity matrices. Atypical Bacteria: general characteristics and importance of actinomyces, cyanobacteria, mycoplasmas, rickettsias, chlamydias and spirochetes, gliding, sheathes, budding and appendage bacteria.

Prerequisites: BIO 102, MCB 101

Recommended Books:
Madigan, MT, Martinko, JM & Parker, J. 2000. Brock Biology of Microorganisms (9th Edition). Prentice Hall Publishers
Cossart, P. 2005. Cellular Microbiology. Publishers Unknown
Microbiology- An Introduction, 5th edition, by Gerard J. Tortora, Berdell R. Funke, Christine L. Case;
Microbiology by M. J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan & N. R. Krieg;
Willey, J, Sherwood, L & Woolverton, C. 2010. Prescott’s Microbiology. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Publishers

MCB 202 Microbial Genetics: 
Classical microbial genetics: Genetic exchange among bacteria, bacterial viruses and yeast. Topics covered include mutagenesis, mutations, analysis of mutants, genetic mapping, DNA repair, genome organization, plasmids, molecular mechanisms for re-combination, transposons, DNA replication and cell division, the cell cycle, regulation of gene expression, growth in bacteria, bacterial viruses, yeast, transcription and its regulation, global regulation, RNA catalysis, splicing, differentiation, the folding, maturation and transport of peptide chains, mitochondrial genetics, nuclear and mitochondrial inheritance in yeast, mating type switch in yeast, and the evolution of genetic systems and organisms.

The module will touch down on the different topics relevant to microbial genetics like mutation rate, types of mutation, detection of mutations, mutagenic agents, screening chemicals for mutagenicity, molecular basis of mutagenesis and mutation. It will also include the study of DNA repair mechanisms including the nature of DNA damage; light dependent repair; excision repair; mismatch repair; post-replication repair; error-prone repair system; SOS repair. The mutant phenotypes in bacteria, basic test for transformation, conjugation and transduction, transformation and gene mapping; conjugation and gene mapping; transduction and gene mapping and evolutionary significance of sexuality in bacteria will be studied. An idea on plasmids basic structures, its size, copy number and classification along with the presence of plasmids in organisms other than bacteria will be provided. Besides the course will describe the different topics relevant to bacterial gene expression including constitutive, inducible and repressive gene expression along with lactose operon in E.coli; induction and catabolite repression; tryptophan operon in E.coli repression and attenuation; arabinose operon in E.coli; positive and negative control; transcriptional, translational and post translational regulatory mechanisms. The different types of recombination, methods of general recombination; molecular basis of homologous and non-homologous recombination will be taught. A brief on transposable elements in prokaryotes; IS elements; composite transposons, Tn3 element, mutagenic effects of bacterial transposable elements, the medical significance of bacterial transposons; transposable elements in eukaryotes; Ac, Ds and Dt elements in maize; P elements and hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila will be given.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101, MCB 102

Recommended Books:
Streips, UN & Yasbin, RE Editors. 2002. Modern Microbial Genetics (2nd Edition). Wiley-Liss Publishers
Maloy, S. 1994. Microbial Genetics (Jones and Bartlett Series in Biology; 2nd Edition). Jones and Bartlett, Inc.
Principles of Genetics- By D. Peter Snustad, ‎Michael J. Simmons, 10th edition
Gene cloning and DNA analysis An Introduction by T.A. BROWN, Sixth Edition
Gene VIII by Benzamin Lewin

MCB 204 Human Physiology: 
Advanced undergraduate study of human organ physiology, with emphasis on homeostasis, along with nervous and hormonal regulation of various organ systems. Considerations of cellular and molecular interactions are emphasized. Topics covered include the heart, blood, lymphatic system, kidney, liver, respiratory system, reproductive system, and water balance.

The course will cover – digestion and digestive system and their mechanisms and control of the secretion; composition of digestive juices, digestion and absorption of foodstuffs; blood and circulatory system, their composition, formation destruction and function of blood, blood coagulation, blood groups, tissue fluid, cardiovascular system; respiratory system and respiratory stimulants, the structures and functions of lungs, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen and nervous system; water and electrolytic balance; lymphoid and lymphatic system; endocrinology and their functions, mechanisms and properties of different hormones; reproductive system and the structure and function of testis, ovary, uterus and placenta.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T

Recommended Books:
Ober, WC, Garrison, CW, Silverthorn, AC & Silverthorn, DU (editor). 2000. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach (2nd Edition). Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Co. Sherwood, L. 2003. Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems (5th Edition). Brooks Cole Publishers
Textbook of Medical Physiology by Guyton and Hall (Eleventh edition)

MCB 210 Departmental Seminar in Health, Biotechnology & Development: 
In this seminar course, students will be exposed to presentations by leaders in their particular fields of study. Invited speakers will include individuals from academia, industry, government, and international health programs. Talks will span a wide variety of disciplines from accomplished professionals who will share their “real world” experiences. Students will be expected to participate in post-lecture discussions and engage one-on-one with the presenter.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T

BIO 301 Experimental Design, Research Methods and Biostatistics: 
Biostatistical concepts necessary for the interpretation, evaluation, and communication of biomedical research are introduced. Course topics include biomedical study design, randomization, graphical data displays, and control of bias, variability, confounding, interaction, and ethics of human experimentation.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T

Recommended Books:
Zolman, JF. 1993. Biostatistics: Experimental Design and Statistical Inference (1st Edition). Oxford University Press, USA
Zar, JH. 1998. Biostatistical Analysis (4th Edition). Prentice Hall Publishers


MCB 301 Environmental Microbiology:

This course covers fundamental aspects of microbial physiology and ecology. Specific areas of focus include energetics and yield, cell structure and physiology, metabolic and genetic regulation, microbial/environmental interactions, and biogeochemical cycles. The goal of this course is to provide a basic understanding and appreciation of microbial processes which may be applicable to environmental biotechnology.  Pollution, xenobiotics, recalcitrants.

In details the course will cover – Biological Interactions: microbial interaction, interaction within a single microbial population, positive and negative interactions, interaction between diverse microbial population, neutralism, commensalism, synergism, mutalism, competition, ammensalism, parasitism, predation, microbe plant interaction and microbe animal interaction. Techniques for the Studying Environmental Microbes: Sample collection, sample processing, detection of microbial population, determination of microbial numbers, determination of microbial biomass, measurement of microbial metabolism. Microbiology of Potable Water: introduction to indicator organism, water borne pathogens, isolation and identification of indicator bacteria, water borne pathogens. Sanitation and Public Health Microbiology with Special Reference to Bangladesh: Water supply, the use of safe water, public tube well coverage, sanitation, disposal of human excreta and refuse. Microorganism and Some Novel Pollution Problem: Persistence and biomagnifications of xenobiotic molecules; recalcitrant halocarbons, polychlorinated biphenys (PCBs), alkyl benzyl sulfonates and synthetic polymer.  Sewage Treatment: primary treatment, secondary treatment; aerobic and anaerobic treatment, tertiary treatment.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101

Recommended Books:
Maier, RM & Pepper, IL.  2008.  Environmental Microbiology (2nd Edition).  Academic Press
Madsen, EL.  2008.  Environmental Microbiology: From Genomes to Biogeochemistry.  Wiley-Blackwell Publishers

MCB 302 Microbial Ecology: 
Fundamental aspects of the ecology of microorganisms in natural soil, aquatic and atmospheric habitats, including extreme environments, and in artificial or managed environments. Interactions among microbes will be studied.
The course will cover – Basic Concept of Microbial Ecology: the scope of microbial ecology; historical overview; relation of microbial ecology to general ecology. Microbial Communities and Ecosystems: development of microbial communities; structure of microbial communities; ecosystems; microbial communities in nature. Brief Introduction to Microorganisms in Natural Habitats: characteristics and stratification of the atmosphere, the atmosphere as habitat and medium for microbial dispersal, microorganism in the atmosphere; hydrosphere ecology of fresh water, composition and activity of fresh water microbial communities; physical and chemical factors, estuaries and marine water environment; characteristics and stratification of the ocean, composition and activity of marine microbial communities; role of microbes in the aquatic environment and lithosphere; Introduction to Soil Formation: Rocks and mineral, soil horizon, soil texture, soil organic matter, chemical properties of soil, soil microbial communities. Effect of Abiotic Factor on Microorganisms: abiotic limitation to microbial growth, Liebig’s law of minimum, Shelford’s Law of tolerance; temperature, radiation, pressure, salinity, water activity, movement, hydrogen ion concentration, redox potential, organic compounds and inorganic compounds. Adaptation and Interactions of Microorganisms in the Extreme Environments: hot springs, acid springs and lakes, Antarctica, extraterrestrial systems

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101, MCB 201

Recommended Books:
Atlas, RM & Bartha, R. 1997. Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications (4th Edition). Benjamin Cummings Publishers
McArthur, JV. 2006. Microbial Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (1st Edition). Academic Press
Microbial Ecology; Larry L. Barton And Diana E. Northup. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication
Microbial Ecology: fundamentals and Applications- R. M Atlas and R. Bartha
Microbial Ecology: Organisms, Habitats and Activities- H. Stolp Microbiology- An Introduction, 5th edition, by Gerard J. Tortora, Berdell R. Funke, Christine L. Case;
Microbiology by M. J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan & N. R. Krieg;
Willey, J, Sherwood, L & Woolverton, C. 2010. Prescott’s Microbiology. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Publishers

MCB 303 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology + Lab: 
A comprehensive introductory course that describes basic biochemistry and reviews current concepts of modern cell and molecular biology.

In detail, the biochemistry component of the course will cover the structure and function of proteins and enzymes, carbohydrates and lipids, metabolism, and the research tools of modern proteomics. In cell biology the students will learn about the morphological and characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, functions of different sub-cellular compartments, distinctive characteristics of the major groups of microorganisms, significance of smallness; endosymbiotic hypothesis. Topics covered in molecular biology include eukaryotic replication, transcription, RNA processing, control of gene expression by methylation, translation, cell cycle, oncogenes and tumor suppressors, viral vectors, and gene therapy. The laboratory will focus on experimental bacteriology and cell biology with an emphasis on experimental approaches and techniques used in study of cells and microorganisms. Experiments will include those in microscopy, cell fractionation, metabolism, physiology, genetics, and regulation.

Prerequisites: BIO 102, BIO 105, BIO 105L

Recommended Books:
Berg, JM, Tymoczko, JL, & Stryer L. 2007. Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman Publications
Alberts, B. 2008. Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th Edition). Garland Science Publication
Boyer, RF. 2011. Biochemistry Laboratory: Modern Theory and Techniques (2nd Edition). Prentice Hall Publications
Surzycki, S. 2003. Human Molecular Biology Laboratory Manual. Wiley-Blackwell Publications
Principles of Biochemistry- Lehninger Nelson and Cox 5th Edition

MCB 304 Microbial Biotechnology:
This course looks into the development of microbial use in traditional fermentation processes, strain selection as well as the development of recombinant microbes for industrial, commercial, environmental, pharmaceutical and medical applications.

The course will introduce the students to the historical development, scope and features of microbial biotechnology; biomass fuel, conservation of fuel-ethanol and methane fermentation; biofuel cells; biotechnology in food products like dairy products, cheese, yoghurt, bakery, alcoholic beverages, SCP and etc.; microbial leaching, metal transformation and immobilization, biopolymers, biodegradation of materials. The course will also talk about the microbial waste system, biological processes for industrial wastes; strain improvement; microbial factors and process engineering factors affecting process performance and economics; future development in industrial biotechnological processes; biotransformation and principles, benefits and methods of enzyme immobilization.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 102, MCB 202

Recommended Books:
Glazer, AN & Nikaido, H. 2007. Microbial Biotechnology: Fundamentals of Applied
Microbiology (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press
Kun, LW & Lee, YK. 2003. Microbial Biotechnology: Principles and Applications. World Scientific Publishing Company
Microbiology- An Introduction, 5th edition, by Gerard J. Tortora, Berdell R. Funke, Christine L. Case
Biology of Microorganisms by T.D. Brock et al.
Microbiology by M. J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan and N. R. Krieg

MCB 305 Enzymology:
Designed to give students an understanding of the physical, chemical and kinetic properties of enzymes. Purification, characterization, and quantitative evaluation of the influence of parameters such as concentrations of substrate and enzyme, pH, temperature, and inhibitors on activity are stressed. Specificity and mechanism of action of enzymes are described by considering examples selected from among enzymes of importance to food science, nutrition, and the biological sciences.

This course will build an understanding on the properties, catalysis, specificity and regulation and classification of enzymes along with the concept of cofactors, coenzymes and vitamins. The primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of enzymes along with its folding domains and idea on molecular chaperons will be discussed. The student will be aware of the catalysis and enzyme mechanism which involves understanding on active site, substrate binding, general acid-base catalysis, non-protein catalysis and metal ions. The kinetics of enzyme catalysed reactions will be studied with an understanding on key terms like catalytic activity, enzyme kinetics, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, turnover number, Km, Vmax; and influences of pH, temperature, chemical agents on enzyme activity. Different types of enzyme inhibition- competitive, non-competitive and un-competitive; deactivation models and strategies for enzyme stabilization.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, BIO 105/L, MCB 102

Recommended Books:
Price, NC & Stevens, L. 1999. Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins (3rd Edition). Oxford University Press, USA
Nord, FF. 2007. Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology. John Wiley & Sons
Principles of Biochemistry- Lehninger Nelson and Cox 5th Edition

MCB 306 Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering: 
Introduces molecular biology and genetic engineering.

The course will teach the student the preparation of total cell DNA, preparation of plasmid DNA, preparation of bacteriophage DNA. The techniques of molecular genetics like production of recombinant DNA in vitro; amplification of recombinant DNA in cloning vector; construction and screening of DNA libraries; molecular analysis of DNA, RNA and protein by blotting techniques; amplification of DNA by PCR etc will be included. The course will discuss about the different restriction endonucleases and other nucleases, ligases, polymerases, DNA modifying enzymes, topoisomerases along with different cloning vectors- plasmids (pBR322, pUC 119), cosmids, bacteriophage M 13, yeast episomal plasmid etc. The students will also learn about ligation systems (blunt end ligation, sticky end ligation, sticky ends to blunt ends, homopolymer tailing etc); transformation of bacterial cells and selection of recombinants; introduction of phage DNA into bacterial cell and selection of recombinant phage; transformation of non-bacterial cells; DNA sequencing; RFPL analysis; requirement for gene expression; expression vectors; regulation of gene expression and others.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 102, MCB 202

Recommended Books:
Nicholl, DST. 2002. An Introduction to Genetic Engineering (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press
Nair, AJ. 2008. An Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering. Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Gene Cloning- An Intrduction- By T. A. Brown
Genomes 3- By T. A Brown
Principles of Genetics- By D. Peter Snustad, ‎Michael J. Simmons, 10th edition

MCB 307 Mycology: 
This course will examine the biology of the true fungi and other groups of organisms traditionally classified with the fungi. Topics covered will include taxonomy, life history traits, ecology, physiology, and evolutionary biology of the major classes and orders of fungi. Particular emphasis will be placed on the impact of fungi on human affairs.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101

Recommended Books:
Alexopoulos, C, Mims, CW & Blackwell, M. 1996. Introductory Mycology (4th Edition). Wiley
Webster, J. 1980. Introduction to Fungi (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press

MCB 308 Immunology: 
Biology of the immune system; The course will cover cellular and molecular mechanisms, host resistance to infectious agents, hypersensitivities, autoimmunity, as well as tumor and tissue rejection. Immunodeficiency, ontogeny, tolerance of cells.

The course will provide an understanding on the brief history and development of immunology; introduction to immune system; basic concept of innate and adaptive immunity; cellular and humoral immunity. The general features and functions of lymphoid cells, mononuclear phagocytes, antigen presenting cells, polymorphs, mast cells and platelets will be discussed along with the process of phagocytosis, and activation and biological functions of complements. The students will learn about immunoglobulin- its functions, classes, subclasses, physiochemical properties, distribution and function of different classes and subclasses of immunoglobulin; memory B cell; genetic basis of antibody heterogenecity; antibody class switching. The course will further teach the general properties of antigen, antigenic determinants, haptens as well as the B and T cell receptors for antigens antigen structure, MHC class I and class II molecules, gene map of MHC antigens, processing and presentation of peptides by MHC molecules, forces of antigen-antibody binding and haplotype restriction of T cell reactivity. The students will also learn about inflammation and their control; lymphocyte activation, regulation of immune response by antigens, antibody, APC and lymphocytes; origin, source and function of cytokines; immunity to bacterial and viral infections and survival strategies of the microorganisms; immunological techniques like precipitation, immunodiffusion, immunoblotting etc.; production & function of monoclonal antibodies. The course will further touch down on the topics of immunological tolerance; use of antigens as vaccines, its safety and effectiveness; deficiencies of – innate immunity, primary B cell, primary T cell, combine immunodeficiency, secondary immunodeficiency; different types of hypersensitivities; transplantation and associated issues; tumor immunology; association of autoimmunity with diseases, genetic factors in pathogenesis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101, MCB 102, MCB 202, MCB 204

Recommended Books:
Goldsby, RA, Kindt, TJ, Osborne, BA & Kuby J. 2003. Immunology (5th Edition). W.H. Freeman Publishers
Roitt, I, Male D, Brostoff, J. 1996. Immunology (4th Edition). Mosby-Year Book Publications
Roitt’s Essential Immunology- P. Delves, S. Martin and I. Roitt

MCB 309 Virology: 
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses as infectious agents and models for modern molecular biology. The course examines concepts and principles of pathogenesis, host response and the regulation of virus-host interactions. Genome organization, structure and replication will be examined within the context of the co-evolution of virus and host. DNA virus, RNA virus, prions, variants.

The course will give the students an idea of the history and development of virology. The morphology, physical properties and chemical composition of virion will be studied. The course will further emphasize on the classification, cultivation and quantification of plant, animal and bacterial viruses, purification and identification of virus; one step growth curve and inclusion bodies. The steps in virus replication; multiplication and gene expression of DNA and RNA viruses will be covered. The pathogenesis of viral disease with an overview of bacteriophages; genome organization and multiplication of RNA and DNA bacteriophages; temperate bacteriophages; transposable phages and the concept of lytic and lysogenic cycle will be taught. The students will be enlightened on the different prevention and treatment strategies for viral infections like viral vaccines and antiviral chemotherapy. The course will also include a brief introduction to different classes of virus; virus infections to respiratory system (common cold, measles, chicken pox, and mumps), gastrointestinal tract (viral diarrhea), arthropod-borne diseases (dengue fever, yellow fever); properties, pathogenesis and transmission of herpes virus, hepatitis virus and nononcogenic retroviruses.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101, MCB 102, MCB 202, MCB 204

Recommended Books:
Belshe, RB. 1990. Textbook of Human Virology (2nd Edition). Mosby-Year Book Publishers
Enquist, RW, Krug, RM, Racaniello, VR, Skalka, AM, Flint, SJ & Flint, S Jane. 1999. Principles of Virology: Molecular Biology, Pathogenesis, and Control (1st Edition). American Society Microbiology
Principles of Virology- By Flint, SJ & Flint
Medical Microbiology-By Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg, 26th edition
Medical Microbiology-By Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg, LANGE medical books
Fields’ Virlogy Volume I & II- By David Mahan Knipe, Peter M. Howley
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, 5th edition

MCB 310 Microbial Physiology and Metabolism: 
Includes the study of microbial metabolism, enzymology, cell envelopes, transport, responses to environmental fluctuations, growth, differentiation and other related processes.

The course will cover – Introduction to Metabolism: important differences and relationship between anabolic and catabolic mechanism in life. Cell Bioenergetics: energy production, ATP generation by different processes, free energy, energy coupling. Membrane Transport System: active, passive, facilitative and group translocation. Carbohydrate Catabolism/ Aerobic Metabolic process: The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, TCA cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative and substrate level phosphorylation. Alternate Pathway of Glucose Catabolism: hexose monophosphate pathway, Entner-Doundoroff pathway, glyoxylate cycle, methyl-glyoxal bypass, inter linkages of pathway, anapleurotic reactions. Pathways for Utilization of Sugars Other Than Glucose: starch, cellulose, maltose, sucrose, lactose, sorbital and mannitol. Catabolic Activities of Aerobic Heterotrophs: growth with organic acids (beta-oxidation), amino acids, aromatic compound, aliphatic hydrocarbons and CI compounds. Anaerobic Metabolic Processes: fermentation of ethanol, acetate-butyrate, acetone-butanol, lactate and methane, methane fermentation.

Prerequisites: BIO 105/L, BIO 102/T, MCB 102, MCB 201, MCB 305

Recommended Books:
Caldwell, DR. 1999. Microbial Physiology and Metabolism (2nd Edition). Star Publishing Company
White, D. 2006. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes (3rd Edition). Oxford University Press
Bacterial Metabolism: Gerhard Gottschalk

MCB 311 Microbiology II Laboratories: 
Important experiments from areas of medical microbiology, human physiology, analytical microbiology, microbial biotechnology, clinical and diagnostic microbiology, immunology, agricultural microbiology, pharmaceutical microbiology, industrial microbiology, microbial chemistry and fermentation technology will be discussed and practiced in the laboratory.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/L, BIO 105/L , MCB 103/L

Recommended Books:
Dubey RC, and Maheshwari DK. 2005. Practical Microbiology. S Chand & Company Ltd.
Frank CH, Olwyn MR and Westwood. 2008. Practical Immunology (4th Edition). Blackwell Science Ltd.
Microbiology: Laboratory Manual- By Cuppacino, 10th edition

MCB 401 Pharmaceutical Microbiology: 
The course focuses on the different applications of biotechnology in pharmaceutical industries such as the production of human insulin, growth hormone interferons, lymphokines and others, gene targeted therapies and ways to engineer new and improved pharmaceutical products.

The course will cover the different sterilization methods like heat, radiation filtration and importance of aseptic techniques in laboratory and working area. Students will learn about the microbial spoilage, deterioration and preservation of pharmaceutical products like suspensions, syrups, sterile products, cosmetics and etc. Determination of potency/concentration of antibiotic and antimicrobial preservative in pharmaceutical products along with an idea on the different microbiological test in a pharmaceutical settings like- sterility test, MIC & MBC and pyrogen & pyrogen tests will be studied. Production of different immunological products lie vaccines, immunosera and human globulins and their quality control will be covered.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 102, MCB 103/L

Recommended Books:
Denyer, SP, Hodges, NA & Gorman, SP. 2004. Hugo and Russell’s Pharmaceutical
Microbiology (7th Edition). Wiley-Blackwell Publishers
Clontz, L. 2008. Microbial Limit and Bioburden Tests: Validation Approaches and Global Requirements (2nd Edition). CRC Press
Pharmaceutical Microbiology- W. B. Hugo and A. D. Rusell
Cooper and Gunn’s Dispensing for Pharmaceutical Students- J. W. Cooper

MCB 402 Agricultural Microbiology: 
The course will focus on the importance of soil microorganisms, factors affecting the activities of soil microorganisms, the carbon and nitrogen cycles, biological nitrogen fixation, symbiotic and non-symbiotic microorganisms, soil management and improvement, the role and utilization of microorganisms, effects of agricultural industrial wastes on soil fertility and the microbial population, microorganisms and plants, the rhizosphere system, mycorrhizae, interaction among microorganisms and interaction between microorganisms and plants, plant pathogens and control methods, SPS (sanitary and phytosanitary) measures and CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity), bioconversion of agricultural wastes for compost, and the effects of microbial management on agriculture/environment/economy.

The course will further build an understanding on the major groups of microorganisms in soil and their roles in soil fertility and plant nutrition which includes the effect of growth regulators produced by the microbes, the use of microbial metabolites; liberation of unavailable nutrients from soil organic matter and minerals suppression of plant pathogens; the production of phytotoxic substances by saprophytes and parasites; the production of enzymes and competition of microorganisms with plants for essential nutrients. Biogeochemical cycles, microbial fertilizer and microbial degradation of cellulose hemicelluloses and lignin will also be covered. The purpose and types of uses of pesticide, its presence in microbial environment, soil and aquatic environment; its effects and metabolism by microorganisms will be studied. Examples of plant diseases by microbial pathogens will be also given.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/L, MCB 101, MCB 201 

Recommended Books:
Ahmed, I, Ahmed, F & Pichtel, J Editors. 2011. Microbes and Microbial Technology: Agricultural and Environmental Applications (1st Edition). Springer Press
Khan, MS, Zaidi, A & Musarrat, J Editors. 2009. Microbial Strategies for Crop Improvement (2nd Edition). Springer Press
An Introduction to Soil Microbiology- M. Alexander
Atlas, RM & Bartha, R. 1997. Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications (4th Edition). Benjamin Cummings Publishers

MCB 403 Food Microbiology and Quality Control of Food & Beverage: 
The goals of this course are to firstly, provide an integrated picture of the field of Food Microbiology which encompasses issues of food safety, food preservation, and food production, and secondly, to introduce students to the problems that a food microbiologist learns to address. Topics will include basic principles of the industry, large-scale process development and the future of the bioscience industry. Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs), and the nature and delivery system of products will also be discussed.
The course will focus on the preparation and microbial spoilage of various foods along with examples of food-borne diseases. The factors affecting microbial growth in food will be discussed and with the different food preservation techniques like temperature, drying, additives etc. Microbial spoilage and preservation techniques of some food like cereal products, milk products, meat products, heated canned food will be discussed in details. Preparation of fermented foods like cheese, yoghurt and bakery will also be covered in this course.
In quality control of food and beverage the topics will include – importance of quality control of food, fish, beverage and mineral water; the principles, application, organization, problems and techniques of quality control; the future of quality control. The course will also emphasize on the fundamental of microbiological quality control, chemical and microbiological indicators for quality assurance, and standards for monitoring to assess compliance with good practices. The students will also learn on the sanitation and hygiene of processing plant, water in processing and cleaning, waste/effluent treatment packaging; sampling, testing panel-sensory assessments in quality control, hazard analyses and critical control point system, identification of potentials hazards, monitoring system for critical control point, corrective actions, verifications; fish quality control research methodology and national and international standards and guidelines for food quality control.
Prerequisites: : BIO 102, MCB 101, MCB 102, MCB 103/L, MCB 201

Recommended Books:
Bremner, HA. 2002. Safety and Quality Issues in Fish Processing (1st Edition). CRC Press
Jay, JM, Loessner, MJ, & Golden, DA. 2005. Modern Food Microbiology (7th Edition). Springer Press
Lund, B, Baird-Parker, AC & Gould, GW. 1999. Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food. Springer Press
Monteville, TJ. 2008. Food Microbiology: An Introduction (2nd Edition). ASM Press
William C. Frazier, Dennis C. Westhoff. Food Microbiology (4th Edition). Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company


MCB 404 Analytical Microbiology
This course will provide the students with an understanding on the different instrument, and techniques for analytical analysis in microbiological studies. The experience will allow the student to better evaluate the working principle of spectroscopes, centrifuges, chromatography, electrophoresis which are routinely used in a microbiological laboratory.

The course will focus on spectroscopic techniques (visible, ultraviolet, infra-red spectrophotometers), NMR & mass spectrometry; principle of sedimentation, centrifuges and their use; density-gradient centrifugation, ultracentrifuge; principle and application of different chromatographic techniques- column, thin-layer, paper, ion-exchange, affinity, exclusion, HPLC; principles and factors of electrophoresis, low and high voltage electrophoresis, gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing; determination of molecular weight of proteins, amino acid composition, protein sequencing; different types and functions of biosensors; enumeration of microorganisms, measurement of biomass, biomass components and biomass environment; instrumentation for monitoring and controlling bioreactors; nature, detection and measurement of radioactivity, application of radioisotopes in the biological sciences.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, BIO 105/L, MCB 102, MCB 103/L, MCB 202

Recommended Books:
Scopes RK. Protein Purification
Wilson K and Goulding KH. 3rd Edition. A Guide to Principle and Techniques of Practical Biochemistry

MCB 405 Fermentation Technology: 
The course will cover microbial growth kinetics, the characteristics and stability of recombinant organisms, and the adaptation of microorganisms to extreme environments. Detailed aspects of fermenter culture maintenance including the mass transfer of oxygen in stirred and air-lift fermenters, the principles of process scale-up and the importance of bioremediation will also be discussed.

The course will provide an idea on the range of fermentation technologies, components of fermentation process, types of fermentors; configurations, mixing and aeration, impellor designs, baffle and aeration; inocula preparation and development for bacterial, yeast and fungal processes; fermentation modeling; modes of fermentation- fed-batch and continuous. In addition the students will also learn about the sterilization processes for the different fermentation systems and instrumentation and control of fermentation processes by controlling the variables.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 102, MCB 201, MCB 310

Recommended Books:
Stanbury, PF, Hall, S & Whitaker, A. 1999. Principles of Fermentation Technology (2nd Edition). Butterworth-Heinemann Publishers
El-Mansi, EMT, Bryce, CFA, Demain, AL & Allman, AR Editors. 2006. Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology (3rd Edition). CRC Press
Fermentation : A Practical Approach- B. McNeil Harvey

MCB 406 Medical Microbiology: 
Introduces students to prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogenic microbes and their applied medical significance. Also covers the basic principles of the immune system and emphasizes the communicable diseases of man caused by microbial pathogens. Specific pathogens such as E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Vibrio, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, etc. will be discussed

The topics in this course will include- Infection and infectious disease: concept of infection and infectious disease, pathogenesis of infectious disease, virulence (ID 50, LD 50). Brief Introduction to Virulence Factors: adherence factors, invasion of host cell and tissues, toxins, enzymes, intracellular pathogenesis, antigenic heterogeneity, iron acquisition. Identification of Microbes that Cause Disease: Koch’s postulates and their limitations. Host-Microbe Interaction: normal resident microflora of human body and their role, initial colonization of a new born, introduction to resident microflora of skin mouth, upper respiratory tract, intestinal tract, uro-genital tract, eye. Non-specific Host Defenses against Microbial Pathogens: primary defenses conferred by tissues and blood. Major Reservoirs of Microbial Pathogen: acquisition and mode of transmission of disease. Epidemiology: study of infectious disease in population. Progress of an infection: true and opportunistic pathogens, portal of entry, size of inoculation, stages in the course of infections and diseases, mechanism of invasion and establishment of pathogens, signs and symptom of a disease, portal of exit. Nosocomical Infection: Hospital as a source. Brief Introduction to the Microbiology of Major Infectious Diseases: skin, respiratory system, nervous system, genitor-urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract; circulatory system

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101, MCB 201 MCB 204

Recommended Books:
Murray, PR, Rosenthal, KS & Pfaller, MA. 2008. Medical Microbiology (6th Edition). Mosby Press
Goering, R, Dockrell, H, Zuckerman, M, Wakelin, D, Roitt, I, Mims, C & Chiodini, PL. 2007. Mims’ Medical Microbiology (4th Edition). Mosby Press

MCB 407 Clinical and Diagnostic Microbiology: 
Pathogenesis of bacterial infections including mixed anaerobic infections; virulence factors including: mechanisms of toxins, tissue tropism as mediated by specific colonization factors, adhesins and specific receptors; comparison and contrast of facultative intracellular (chronic) and extracellular (acute) bacterial infections and the roles of innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity in their resolution; rationale for antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections.

The course will provide the students with an understanding on the different types and approaches to clinical sample collection, maintenance and laboratory management; principles and diagnoses of bacterial, fungal, rickettsial, parasitic, spirochetal, viral and mycoplasmal diseases; diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases. It will also include immunodiagonostic studies- collection of serum, antibody titre, agglutination, double diffusion, counter immuno electrophoresis, RIA, EIA, ELISA; finger printing, nucleic acid probes, immune-blotting etc. The detection of genes for toxins and virulence along with vaccine approaches and immunization will also be focused on in this course.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101, MCB 204, MCB 308, MCB 406

Recommended Books:
Koneman, EW, Allen, SD, Janda, WM, Schreckenberger, PC & Winn, WC. 1997. Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology (5th Edition). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Publishers
Murray, PR, Baron, EJ, Jorgensen, JH, Landry, ML & Pfaller, MA Editors. 2007. Manual of Clinical Microbiology: 2 Volume Set (9th Edition). ASM Press
Strelkauskas, A, Strelkauskas, J & Moszyk-Strelkauskas, D. 2009. Microbiology: A Clinical Approach. Garland Science
Medical Microbiology-By Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg, 26th edition
Medical Microbiology-By Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg, LANGE medical books

MCB 408 Readings in Microbiology: 
Intensive reading course that provides basic instruction in the critical evaluation of scientific literature. Emphasis will be on current publications in microbiology. Emphasis will be on current publications in the biological sciences. This is an advanced course that uses detailed discussion of the primary literature to understand fundamental cellular processes. The focus is on dissecting research papers to gain insight into the rationale behind specific experimental approaches, understand how experiments are performed and critically analyze the data and interpretations. We will start with an introduction to critical thinking and experimental design and then probe four sequential papers from a prominent research lab that all investigate the same biological process. In this way, students gain an understanding of the creative nature of laboratory research and see how a research project develops and diversifies.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101, MCB 201, MCB 202, MCB 303/L, MCB 306, MCB 307, MCB 308, MCB 309, MCB 310, MCB 311/L

MCB 409 Industrial Microbiology
The course introduces the students on use of microorganisms in the manufacture of foods and industrial products.

The course will emphasize on – historical development, scope and major classes of microbial products and processes; industrial important microorganisms like yeast, molds, bacteria and actinomycetes,; screening and selection of microorganisms for useful products; microbiological production of foods (SCP, MBP, baker’s yeast, food additives fermented sausage); beverage production (beers, wines and distilled spirits); production of industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals (organic acids, acetate, citrate lactate and amino acids, solvents, alcohol, butanol, enzymes antibiotics, steroids); domestic and industrial scale production from waste materials.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, BIO 105/L, MCB 101, MCB 103/L, MCB 201, MCB 202, MCB 301, MCB 302, MCB 303/L, MCB 304, MCB 305, MCB 306, MCB 307, MCB 308, MCB 309, MCB 310

Recommended Books:
Miller BM and Litsky W. Industrial Microbiology
Reed G. Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology

MCB 410 Student Symposium in Microbiology: 
In this seminar course, students will present and critically analyze select, recent publications in microbiology. Each student will be responsible for at least one formal presentation of published work.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, BIO 105/L, MCB 101, MCB 201, MCB 202, MCB 301, MCB 302, MCB 303/L, MCB 304, MCB 305, MCB 306, MCB 307, MCB 308, MCB 309, MCB 310
MCB 411 Microbiology III Laboratories:
Important experiments from areas of virology, food microbiology and quality control, microbial molecular genetics and enzymology will be discussed and practiced in laboratory to provide the students with an overall working experience on methodologies and tools relevant to these areas.

Prerequisites: : BIO 102/T, BIO 105/L, MCB 103/L 

Recommended Books:
Dubey RC, and Maheshwari DK. 2005. Practical Microbiology. S Chand & Company Ltd.
Wilson K and Walker J. 2010. Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (7th Edition). Cambridge University Press 2010.

MCB 450 Senior Project: 
This course will entail that the student either work on a lab-based project or write a scientific literature review under the supervision of a faculty member.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, BIO 105/L, MCB 101, MCB 201, MCB 202, MCB 301, MCB 302, MCB 303/L, MCB 304, MCB 305, MCB 306, MCB 307, MCB 308, MCB 309, MCB 310,MCB 311/L

MCB 451 Internship in Microbiology: 
The internship will provide students with hands-on work experience in Microbiology or related disciplines either within the University or in outside institutions. The experience readies the individual for their first position in the field along with continued attention to and application of skills required to gain employment.

Prerequisites: BIO 102/T, MCB 101, MCB 201, MCB 202, MCB 303/L, MCB 306, MCB 307, MCB 308, MCB 309, MCB 310, MCB 311/L